# Matter & motion

### Matter is a spot of concentrated energy. Physical materials are combination of molecules. Molecules are combination of atoms. Atoms are consisting nucleus surrounded by electrons moving in an elliptical path. Due to the movements around atom it will not be attracted in to the nucleus. Every single atom forms a sphere due to elliptical path over different geometrical planes. If energy is imposed on an atom (or agitated by external force) movements of electrons will increase with the increase of accommodating space. To hold the electrons any further by the atom energy will release from atom as heat, light and any other forms. When the external force is released the atom will absorb energy again from surrounding.

Matter is available in three forms namely solid, liquid and gases. Gasses are having freedom to move escaping its bounds. Liquids can move within its bound but cannot escape its bound without an external force. Solids cannot move its molecules within its boundaries.

Further in to matter and energy we shall deal with the quantum theory with a different aspect:

1. Quantum theory assumes Energy is not continues; it comes in discrete small units

2. Einstein developed there is no boundary between material and energy.

Therefore we assume :

### There will be type of smallest energy particle, where the boundary between particle and energy cannot be divided.

During the birth of an atom, sub atomic particles move towards the center of atom. Due to the attraction from the center these particles are not capable of escaping the gravitational field of the atom, so that they are orbiting around the atom. They can be moving in elliptical path. Amount of sub atomic particles it can hold, are limited depending the mass of the atom. In this case we count electrons are as energy particles.

The gravitational potential  at a point in the gravitational field is defined as the work done in taking a unit mass from that point to infinity against the force of gravitational attraction.

From the definition, we have Thus energy spent on joining two energy particles is equal to the work done by the force attracting each other that can be given in following equation where m is the mass of energy particle and the distance between two particles is "r". Where µ is an universal gravitational constant. Therefore the energy spent on bringing a particle close to the center is or an approximation to infinity. This is the energy required to depart two particle. It proves that when an atom is broken apart it emits a large amount of energy and it is known as nuclear explosion. • ## Basic principal of Motion

### Examples : ### As shown in the first example, the load moves to front due to the expansion & contraction of the body muscles of the man. In the second example expansion of gasses results the turning of the crank shaft. Therefore vehicles are moving on the road due to expansion and contract taking place somewhere. Expansion of a rod due to heat is also a result of attraction and repulsion. If we inquire further in to molecular structure the rod, distance between molecules getting expanded.

Exansion and contraction resuls due to attraction and repulsion between materials and bodies.

This way if we analyze any movement in the universe it is due to Attractions and repulsion.

## Acceleration is not uniform during the attraction of two bodies having different sizes.

### If m1=m2 and M= nm then, where large object consist of n number of small object. Then, we can denote the Gravitational force by Where G is the Universal gravitational constant .

When a small particle moves very close to a surface of a large body, attractive forces imposed by particles of the large body will act extensively on it, preventing escape from the larger one, making bounds with it. This phenomenon can easily be understood assuming both masses are consisting same materials and larger mass is   "n" times larger than small mass.

### Force of attraction between two charges are given by: Assuming the all objects subjected to attraction are equal in size and properties, we can build a model diagram of two objects and to find out the actual attractive force on a small object imposed by a large object. In our model the larger object (having radius "R") consist of "n" number of smaller object having radius "r". Distance between two objects at particular instant is "D". Any way D is the distance between closest two particles subjected to attraction. But there are other particles at a distance "D+h" where h can be calculated in terms of D.

Looking at these geometrical constructions the formula related to attraction of two objects is not as simple as shown in equations (1) and (2).

This geometrical construction further giving us the explanations about surface tension and formation of layers in liquids and gasses :

### In this picture gravitational field  is indicated by the sphere around the airplane. When the airplane is at a higher attitude the intensity region is reduced.

#### This way if a pebble and boulder of same density are allowed to fall free from sky at the same time from same height; the boulder it will fall earlier than the pebble, due to higher gravitational intensity of it. Thus, particles of same density but with different sizes will reach ground at different periods of time. If you drop two steel balls one large and the other small, from sky at same time, the larger one will reach ground before the smaller one.

Therefore, what Aristotle told about two particles falling on ground is more accurate than what Galileo Galilei demonstrated on Pisa Tower.

#### Usually movement of comets and asteroids obey this rule. Thus larger particles take the lead while smaller particles follow.

• ### Limitations of Gravitational forces:

. Not all particles on earth are effective for gravitational force on an object placed away from earth.

### Gravitational force acted upon an object depend on it's density of particles and curvature. The size of earth and moon are affecting the proportion of gravitational pull on a space craft as shown in the figure. This way attraction between two planets depends on, the size of the planets, particle density and distance between them. Suppose we are concerned about a force that will act upon an aircraft. All the particles of the planet do not participate in attracting the space craft. As shown in the figure only a part of particles on the planet will participate in attracting the space craft, depending the curvature of the planet that govern the size of the planet.

## Space and beyond space

### When the idea of space was born, something was available. Let us imagine we have the tiniest particle available in any form.

Then there is a region around it as the field of intensity. This region can be a magnetic field, a glow of light as a field of light, thermal field, region of concepts and thoughts or any other.

### So that the space is having boundaries and limits.

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Last edited : On 30st Deceber 2017 by Leelananda Jayasuriya.