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Heat & Thermodynamics:

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  • Heat can excite molecules. There is an upper limit of temperature, for energy emission as heat. Above upper limit energy emission as heat, will stop and it turns to high energy "Rays" (visible or invisible) that cannot consider as Thermal Energy anymore. This higher level of energy does not have same properties of heat. They can be destructive at one level and can be and harmless at another level.

  • Like any other form of energy, "thermal energy"  also available within a certain frequency range. ( Example. Energy, in the form of Sound  is available between frequency range  16 Fire.jpg (93917 bytes) Hertz to 20,000 Hertz. Light is available within a spectrum 380 Tetra Hertz to 760 Tetra Hertz. Tetra hertz is One trillion periods per second.)

  • If we can excite molecules,  materials generate heat  (Eq : micro wave cooker, hitting a nail with hammer, passing a flow of electrons through a conductor). If we  heat  an iron rod it gradually increases its temperature and turns red then yellow and become bright. It shows emission of light start later than emission of thermal energy. Thermal radiation emits from all matters possessing thermal energy. However the highest temperatures available universally cannot be measured with manmade instruments, and it should be calculated by theoretical means. The highest possible temperature is postulated as Planck temperature, having the value 1.416785×10^32 Kelvin.

  • The temperature in space is aproximately at absolute zero. All objects radiate heat until it cools to absolute zero. The absolute zero value is approximately 2.725 Kelvin ( or -270 degrees Celsius / -455 Fahrenheit). Even at this temperature movement between of molecules can continue, because heat is not the factor for vibration and movement between atoms and molecules.

  • Below absolute zero Energy is not available as heat. It is the lowest state of energy available in the form of heat.

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